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For the various countries historically named Mexico, see 

. Mexican History .

Mexican States
Estados Mexicanos ( Spanish )
Also known as:Free and Sovereign State
Estado Libre y Soberano
Categoryfederal state
LocationUnited Mexican States
Number32 (31 states and Mexico City )
populationsSmallest:Baja California Sur 732,000The biggest:Mexico 17,001,000
fieldsSmallest:Mexico City 1.480 km 2 (573 sq mi)The biggest:Chihuahua 247.460 km 2 (95.543 mi)
StateState / Mexico City Government
subsectionsmunicipalities
Mexican politics
to showfederal government
to showExecutive
to showlegislative
to showjudgment
to showelections
to showpolitical parties
to showAdministrative divisions
to showExternal Affairs
flag Mexico portalOther countries
intand

The United Mexican States ( Spanish : Estados Unidos Mexicanos ) is a 32 federal birimden oluşan federal cumhuriyet : 31state [1] and an autonomous unit, Mexico City.According to 1917 Anayasası’na göre federasyona bağlı eyaletler özgür vesovereign in all matters related to their internal affairs . [2] Each state has its own congress and constitution.

Contents

Mexico’s federal agencies 

This section doğrulama için ek alıntılara ihtiyaç duyar. Please help improve this article güvenilir kaynaklara alıntılar ekleyerek . Unsourced material can be challenged and removed. ( October 2020 ) Learn how and when to remove this template message )

states _ _

Main article: 

List of Mexican states

Roles and powers of states 

Typical (unofficial) regional grouping of Mexican states.

Socorro Adası’nınand

Revillagigedo Takımadalarınınlocation of the rest and Mexico’s west in the Pacific

MEB’inin kapsamı. The islands are part of the state of Colima but under federal jurisdiction.

The states of the Mexican Federation are free, sovereign, autonomous and independent of each other. They are free to govern themselves according to their own laws; each state has a constitution that cannot conflict with the federal constitution that covers national adequacy issues. States may not form alliances with other states or any independent nation without the consent of the entire federation, except for those concerned with the defense and security arrangements necessary to keep the border states safe in the event of an invasion. The political organization of each state is based on the separation of powers in the congress system:yasamapower to a unicameral congress (the federal congress has two chambers),yürütme yetkisi ise tek kamaralı bir kongreye verilmiştir.independent of the legislature andgenel oylaan elected governor,yargı yetkisiifYüksek Adalet Divanınabelongs . Because the states have legal autonomy, each has its own civil and criminal laws and jurisdictions.

UnityKongresi’ndeeach of the federative units (states) is represented by three senators. Two of them are elected by universal suffrage according to the principle of proportional majority, and one is appointed to the party with the largest minority.Ayrıca federasyon, 32 senatörün nispi temsilcreates a constituency from which it is selected . But Federal Deputies represent citizens, not states.Temsilciler MeclisiandSenatounity togetherKongresini oluşturur.

Internal organization of states 

Main ingredients:

Meksika Belediyeleri ve Meksika’daResidential

sınıflandırması

The states are subdivided into municipalities. Each municipality is autonomous in electing its own council. The council is headed by a mayor, who is elected every three years. In terms of population size, each municipality has a council consisting of council members. In most cases, the municipality is responsible for providing all necessary services for its population.Meksika Devrimi’ndenThis concept is known as “free municipalism”.

As of January 2021, there are 2,454 municipalities in Mexico. The state with the most municipalities , with 570Oaxacaand the state with the fewest municipalities with only five municipalitiesBaja California Sur . [3]

Mexico City 

Mexico Cityis the capital of the United Mexican States. Until January 2016 it had special status as a federal district and was originally called Distrito Federal .

Mexico City became the capital of the federation, separating from Mexico City, of which it was the capital, on November 18, 1824.oldu. As such, it did not belong to any state, but to all of them and the federation. Therefore, representing the federationMeksikahead, formerly called regent ( regente ) or head of department ( jefe del departamento)hükümetappointed its president. However, the Federal District received more autonomy in 1997 and its citizens were able to elect their heads of government for the first time at that time.

In 2016, the Mexican Congress passed a constitutional reform that abolished the federal district and established Mexico City as a fully autonomous entity on par with the states. [4] [5] However, unlike other states of the Union, it would receive funding for education and health. Given full autonomy, Mexico City adopted its own constitution (previously it had only one organic law, the Statute of Autonomy), and its counties expanded local government powers. [6]

Interiors of Mexico City

Main article:

Mexico City’nin İlçeleri

Mexico City , 16 officially known as demarcaciones teritoriales or colloquially as alcaldías in Spanishilçeye bölünmüştür. Administered by a mayor, these counties retained the same district and name as the former delegaciones . [7]

Yerli halkların kendi kaderini tayin hakkı

This section does notkaynak göstermemektedir. Please help improve this section güvenilir kaynaklara alıntılar ekleyerek . Unsourced material can be challenged and removed . ( October 2020 ) (Bu şablon mesajının nasıl ve ne zaman kaldırılacağını öğrenin)

The second article of the constitutionyerli halklarrecognizes its multicultural structure. The government gives them the right to self-determination and autonomy. According to this article, indigenous peoples

  • The right to decide on their own internal social, economic, political and cultural forms of organization;
  • The right to implement their own systems of normative regulation, as long as human rights and women’s rights (gender equality) are granted;
  • The right to preserve and enrich their language and culture; and
  • Among other rights, the right to elect representatives to the city council where their district is located

The nation commits to and requests its constituent states and municipalities to promote intercultural and bilingual education, as well as the economic and social development of indigenous communities.Yerli Halkların Dil Hakları Genel Yasası’naAccording to the nation, 68 indigenous languages ​​have the same validity as Spanish in the territory where they are spoken.ulusal diller ” olarak tanır. Indigenous peoples have the right to demand public services in their own language.

Postal abbreviations and ISO 3166-2 codes

See also:

ISO 3166-2:MX

Two letter political divisions of Mexico

Federatif varlığın adıgeleneksel
kısaltma
2 harfli kod*3 harfli kod
ISO 3166-2:MX )
 AguascalientesHe cries.MX – AGMX-AGU
 Baja CaliforniaB.CMX – M.Ö.MX-BCN
 Baja Kaliforniya SurBCSMX – BSMX-BCS
 CampecheCamp.MX – CMMX-CAM
 ChiapasChis.MX – CSMX-CHP
 ChihuahuaChih.MX – ChMX-CHH
 CoahuilaCoah.MX – COMX-COA
 kolimaColonelMX – CLMX-COL
 Meksika şehriCDMXMX – DFMX-CMX
 Colorado eyaletinde bir şehirdgo.MX – DGMX-DUR
 GuanajuatoGto.MX – GTMX-GUA
 GuerreroGro.MX – GRMX-GRO
 HidalgoHgo.MX – HGMX-HID
 jaliscoJal.MX – MEMX-JAL
 MeksikaEdomex. or Méx.MX – EMMX-MEX
 MichoacánMe.MX – MIMX-MIC
 MorelosMr.MX – MOMX-MOR
 NayaritNo.MX – NoneMX-NAY
 Nuevo LeonNLMX – NetherlandsMX-NLE
 OaxacaOaks.MX – OAMX-OAX
 pueblaPue.MX – PUMX-PUE
 Querétaroinn.MX – QTMX-WHAT
 Quintana RooS Roo. or QRMX – QRMX-ROO
 San Luis PotosiSLPMX – SLMX-SLP
 SinaloaSin.MX – SIMX-SIN
 SonoraSon.MX – SOMX-SON
 TabascotabMX – TBMX-TAB
 Tamaulipastamponlar.MX-TMMX-TAM
 Tlaxcalateşekkürler.MX – TLMX-TLA
 VeracruzGörmek için.MX – VEMX-VER
 YucatanYuc.MX – YUMX-YUC
 zacatecasZac.MX – İÇİNMX-ZAC

*Mexico’s postal agencyCorreos de Méxicodoes not provide an official list. There are several commercially designed competitor lists available. Here is the list,bu kaynaklarareflect their choices among themselves.

Date 

Constitution 

Birinci Meksika İmparatorluğu’nunpolitical divisions . Cordoba Antlaşması Acquisitions (1821–1822)

On September 27, 1821, after three centuries of Spanish ruleMeksikagained its independence.Córdoba Antlaşması,newİspanya Genel Valiliğininrecognized a part of it as an Independent Empire – “monarchist, constitutional and moderate” . [8] The new country itselfMeksika İmparatorluğugave his name.Üç Garanti Ordusu’nunOn September 28, 1821Mexico City’yethe morning after he entered ,Agustín de IturbideHe ordered the Provisional High Government Junta (September 1821 – February 1822) to meet to elect a president of the Imperial Regency and issue a declaration of independence for the new nation. Iturbide was elected head of the Regency, and that afternoon the members of the Regency and the High Junta signed the Declaration.

A minority of the Constituent Congress seeking stability,Agustín de Iturbide’yielected emperor. On July 21, 1822, Iturbide was crowned Emperor of Mexico. [9] However, the Constitutional Empire quickly showed the incompatibility of its two main parts: the Emperor and the Constituent Congress. Lawmakers were imprisoned simply for expressing their opinions, and eventually Iturbide decided to dissolve Congress and set up a National Assembly instead. [10]

The absence of a legitimate legislature, the illegitimacy of the Emperor, and the lack of real solutions to the nation’s problems increased revolutionary activity. [11th] Antonio López de Santa Anna, later joined by Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás BravoCasa Mata Planınıdeclared . Iturbide was forced to re-establish Congress and abdicated the imperial throne on March 19, 1823 , in a futile attempt to restore order and keep the situation in favor of his supporters .

Congress overruled Iturbide’s appointment and hence the recognition of abdication. He regarded Iturbide’s coronation as a logical mistake in the completion of Independence. [12] The dissolution of the empire was the first political reorganization of independent Mexico.

federal republic __

The political divisions of Mexico after the 1824 Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States came into effect. federal district sovereign state

After the fall of the empire, a power called the Supreme Executiveüçlü hükümdarlıkwas created. The provisional government established the Federal Republic and remained in force from April 1, 1823 to October 10 , 1824.

Unrest was common in the countryside. On May 21, 1823, the Establishment Plan of the Federal Republic was enacted. In its sixth article, it is stated that “the elements of the Republic are free, sovereign and independent States in matters pertaining to internal administration and government”. [14]Özgür Devletlerin çoğu ,FederalCumhuriyet, Guatemala’nın eski Başkomutanlığı olan ve kendi Federal Cumhuriyetlerini oluşturan beş Orta Amerika eyaleti dışında, Birliğe katıldı . [15]

On January 31, 1824, a decision was made to create a Constitutional Law of the Mexican FederationFederal Cumhuriyetin temel yapısını içerir.It was determined that the criteria for inviting the states to federate should be “…not so few as to desire to establish themselves as independent nations through expansion and wealth in a few years, but to break the federal tie”. nor should the system become inoperable due to a lack of manpower and resources.” [16]

Between 1823 and 1824, some of the Free States created their own constitutions and others had already established a Constituent Congress. Special cases are those that decided to join the federation as a Federated Republic on December 23, 1823.Yucatan ve decided to join the federation with a referendum on September 14 , 1824.Chiapas’ınkilerdi .

On October 4, 1824Birleşik Meksika Devletlerinin 1824 tarihli Federal Anayasasıaccepted. Constitution officiallyBirleşik Meksika Devletlerinicreated . The country consisted of 19 states and 4 federal districts. [18] On 18 November following the promulgation of the ConstitutionFederal Bölgecreated. [19] on November 24 , which has had a special status since colonial timesTlaxcala , bir bölge olarak birleştirildi. [20]

on October 10, 1824Guadalupe Victoria , Meksika’nın ilk Cumhurbaşkanıstarted his job . [21]

Centralized republic __

Centralist Republic with separatist movements that emerged with the disintegration of the Federal Republic. The region declared its independence Territory claimed by the Republic of Texas Territory claimed by the Republic of the Rio Grande riots

Cumhuriyet’inpolitical structure,merkeziyetçi sisteminIt was amended by a decree of October 3, 1835, when it was established.

CumhuriyetiThe states that constitute the country have lost their freedom, autonomy, independence and sovereignty by being completely subject to the central government. However, the territorial division itself was the same, as the text of Article 8 of the Law determined: the national territory is divided into zones on the basis of population, location and other prominent conditions: its number, extension and subdivisions.,detailed in constitutional law. [22]

Yedi Anayasa Kanunu( Spanish:Siete Leyes Constitucionales ) came into force on 30 December 1836. [23] Article 1 upheld the law of 3 October 1835; RepublicilçelereCounties would be divided into parties.2. madde, CumhuriyetinHe envisaged that the division into states would be subject to a special law of a constitutional nature. [24] On December 30, 1835Yedi Kanun’a geçici bir kararname eklendi.. The decree stated that the territory of Tlaxcala and the Federal District would become part of the Mexican Department. The Alta and Baja California counties would form the Californias department.Coahuila y TejasIt would be divided into two parts. Colima will form part of Michoacán and Aguascalientes will be declared a department.

This period of political instability caused several conflicts between the central government and the units of the country, and rebellions broke out in several states: [25]

On September 11, 1842Soconusco bölgesi, As part of the Chiapas divisionMeksika’yajoined .

Restoration of the Republic and the Second Empire 

Federal Republic, provisional president on August 22, 1846José Mariano Salas tarafından restore edildi. Guerreroprovince, territoryMéxico,PueblaandMichoacánIt was provisionally established in 1849, subject to its approval by the legislatures of its states. would be affected.

on February 5, 1857Birleşik Meksika Devletlerinin 1857 tarihli Federal Anayasasıaccepted. But in 1864Fransız müdahalesindenthen conservative Mexicans , led by the Habsburg emperor Maximilian and III. Known as the Second Mexican Empire , supported by Napoleon’s French armyanayasal monarşiyithey reinstalled. The Empire was overthrown by the republican forces of Benito Juárez in 1867 , and the Federal Republic was restored under the 1857 Constitution.

United Mexican States 1917Siyasi Anayasası , Meksika Devrimi’ninwas the result . Mexico’s third Constitution approved the federal system of government currently in effect. [26]

Seeayrıca ._

Notes __

  • ^a Some of these flags are used in states such as the Civil or Historic Flags (Yucatán, Hidalgo, Baja California, Michoacán) and are further recognized by the people as official state flags appointed by President Ernesto Zedillo in 1999 and can be found waving. people’s homes. Others are proposed to state legislatures by citizens or groups, but have yet to be ratified. Only two states in Mexico changed their flags and made their own flags official, Jalisco and Tlaxcala.

References [düzenle ]

  1. ^ INEGI (1 January 2016). “México en Cifras” . en.www.inegi.org.mx (in Spanish) . Accessed January 6, 2020 .
  2. “Birleşik Meksika Devletleri Federal Anayasası”nın 40. Maddesi (PDF) . Meksika Yüksek Mahkemesi. p. 105. 11 Mayıs 2011 tarihinde kaynağından (PDF) arşivlendi . Erişim tarihi: 5 Nisan 2011 .
  3. “Censo de Poblacion y Vivienda 2020 – SCITEL” (in Spanish). İNEGİ _ Retrieved on : 27 January 2021 .
  4. ^ Mendez, Jose Luis; Dussauge-Laguna, Mauricio (2017). “Policy analysis in Mexico” . International Policy Analysis Library . Policy Press. 9. : 336. ISBN 9781447329169.
  5. “Mexico City Will Become State” . Wilson Center . June 2, 2016 . Accessed January 6, 2020 .
  6. “They put an end to the DF after 191 years; Senate approves Political Reform” . 16 Aralık 2015.
  7. “Constitution of Mexico City” (PDF) (in Spanish). Gobierno de la Ciudad de Mexico. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2022 . Retrieved February 8, 2021 .
  8. “24 years before 1821. You have a firm at Tratados in Cordoba” . Gobierno Federal. Archived from the original on 21 September 2010 . Accessed October 5, 2010 .
  9. “July 21, 1822. Agustín de Iturbide es Coronado Emperador de México” . Gobierno Federal. Archived from the original on 6 October 2010 . Accessed October 5, 2010 .
  10. “La Transición del Imperio a la Republica (1821–1823)” . Estudios de Historia Moderna and Contemporánea de México. Archived from the original on 17 January 2011 . Accessed October 5, 2010 .
  11. ^ Suarez and Navarro, John (1850). Mexico History ve of General Antonio Lopez of Santa Anna Mexico. p. 23.
  12. ^Jump to:b “La Transicion del Imperio a la Republica o la Participacion Indiscriminada”(in Spanish). Archivedfrom17 January 2011. Accessed May 6, 2010.
  13. “El Viajero in Mexico (Page 30)” (PDF) . Digital. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2022 . Accessed October 5, 2010 .
  14. “Mexican Union Territory Division (1810–1995) Page 21” (PDF) . İNEGİ _ Retrieved 5 October 2010 .
  15. “01 de julio de 1823. Las Provincias Unidas del Centro de America se independizan de México” . Gobierno Federal. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010 . Accessed October 5, 2010 .
  16. “Constitutional act presented to the sovereign Constituent Congress by its commission” (İspanyolca).
  17. “Anniversary of the Federation from Chiapas to Mexico” (İspanyolca).
  18. “Decree. Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States” (İspanyolca).
  19. “Decree. Mexico is indicated with the district that is expressed for the residence of the supreme powers of the federation” (İspanyolca).
  20. “Decree. Tlaxcala is declared territory of the federation” (İspanyolca).
  21. ^ Tuck, Jim. “Guadalupe Victoria: Mexico’s first unknown president” .
  22. ^ “Constitutional Bases Issued by the Constituent Congress”, Felipe Tena Ramírez” , Op.cit.p.203
  23. “La Suprema Corte en las Constituciones Centralistas” (PDF) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 June 2007 . Retrieved April 25, 2010 .
  24. “Territorial Division of the United Mexican States from 1810 – 1995 (Sayfa 27)” (PDF) (İspanyolca).
  25. “Territorial Division of the United Mexican States from 1810 – 1995 (Sayfa 28)” (PDF) (İspanyolca).
  26. “Territorial Division of the United Mexican States from 1810 – 1995 (Sayfa 29)” (PDF) (İspanyolca).
  • Political Constitution of the United Mexican States; 2. and clauses 42 to 48
  • The Law of Language Rights, or “Ley de los Derechos Lingüísticos” was ratified in 2001.juihu b

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