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CakartaCakarta Özel Başkent BölgesiCava10.562.0889.607.787+9,93%SurabayaDoğu CavaCava2.874.3142.765.487+3,94%BekasiBatı CavaCava2.543.6762.334.871+8,94%BandungBatı CavaCava2.444.1602.394.873+2,06%MedanKuzey SumatraSumatra2.435.2522.097.610+16,10%DepokBatı CavaCava2.056.3351.738.570+18,28%TangerangBantenCava1.895.4861.798.601+5,39%PalembangGüney SumatraSumatra1.668.8481.455.284+14,68%SemarangOrta CavaCava1.653.5241.555.984+6,27%MakassarGüney SulawesiSulawesi1.423.8771.338.663+6,37%Güney TangerangBantenCava1.354.3501.290.322+4,96%BatamRiau AdalarıSumatra1.196.396944.285+26,70%Bandar LampungLampungSumatra1.166.066881.801+32,24%BogorBatı CavaCava1.043.070950.334+9,76%PekanbaruRiauSumatra983.356897.767+9,53%PadangBatı SumatraSumatra909.040833.562+9,05%MalangDoğu CavaCava843.810820.243+2,87%SamarindaDoğu KalimantanKalimantan827.994727.500+13,81%DenpasarBaliKüçük Sunda Adaları725.314788.589−8,02%TasikmalayaBatı CavaCava716.155635.464+12,70%SerangBantenCava692.101577.785+19,79%BalikpapanDoğu KalimantanKalimantan688.318557.579+23,45%PontianakBatı KalimantanKalimantan658.685554.764+18,73%BanjarmasinGüney KalimantanKalimantan657.663625.481+5,15%CambiJambiSumatra606.200531.857+13,98%CimahiBatı CavaCava568.400541.177+5,03%SurakartaOrta CavaCava522.364499.337+4,61%ManadoKuzey SulawesiSulawesi451.916410.481+10,09%KupangDoğu Nusa TenggaraKüçük Sunda Adaları442.758336.239+31,68%CilegonBantenCava434.896374.559+16,11%MataramBatı Nusa TenggaraKüçük Sunda Adaları429.651402.843+6,65%JayapuraPapuaBatı Yeni Gine398.478256.705+55,23%BengkuluBengkuluSumatra373.591308.544+21,08%YogyakartaYogyakarta Özel BölgesiCava373.589388.627−3,87%PaluOrta SulawesiSulawesi373.218336.532+10,90%AmbonMalukuMaluku Adaları347.288331.254+4,84%SukabumiBatı CavaCava346.325298.681+15,95%KendariGüneydoğu SulawesiSulawesi345.107289.966+19,02%CirebonBatı CavaCava333.303296.389+12,45%DumaiRiauSumatra316.782253.803+24,81%PekalonganOrta CavaCava307.150281.434+9,14%Palangka RayaOrta KalimantanKalimantan293.457220.962+32,81%BinjaiKuzey SumatraSumatra291.842246.154+18,56%KediriDoğu CavaCava286.796268.507+6,81%SorongBatı PapuaBatı Yeni Gine284.410190.625+49,20%TegalOrta CavaCava273.825239.599+14,28%PematangsiantarKuzey SumatraSumatra268.254234.698+14,30%BanjarbaruGüney KalimantanKalimantan253.442199.627+26,96%Banda AcehAcehSumatra252.899223.446+13,18%TarakanKuzey KalimantanKalimantan242.786193.370+25,56%ProbolinggoDoğu CavaCava239.649217.062+10,41%SingkawangBatı KalimantanKalimantan235.064186.462+26,07%LubuklinggauGüney SumatraSumatra234.166201.308+16,32%TanjungpinangRiau AdalarıSumatra227.663187.359+21,51%BitungKuzey SulawesiSulawesi225.134187.652+19,97%Padang SidempuanKuzey SumatraSumatra225.105191.531+17,53%PangkalpinangBangka Belitung AdalarıSumatra218.569174.758+25,07%BatuDoğu CavaCava213.046190.184+12,02%PasuruanDoğu CavaCava208.006186.262+11,67%TernateKuzey MalukuMaluku Adaları205.001185.705+10,39%BanjarBatı CavaCava200.973175.157+14,74%GorontaloGorontaloSulawesi198.539180.127+10,22%MadiunDoğu CavaCava195.175170.964+14,16%PrabumulihGüney SumatraSumatra193.196161.984+19,27%SalatigaOrta CavaCava192.322170.332+12,91%LhokseumaweAcehSumatra188.713171.163+10,25%LangsaAcehSumatra185.971148.945+24,86%PalopoGüney SulawesiSulawesi184.681147.932+24,84%BontangDoğu KalimantanKalimantan178.917143.683+24,52%TanjungbalaiKuzey SumatraSumatra176.027154.445+13,97%Tebing TinggiKuzey SumatraSumatra172.838145.248+19,00%MetroLampungSumatra168.676145.471+15,95%Bau-BauGüneydoğu SulawesiSulawesi159.248136.991+16,25%BimaBatı Nusa TenggaraKüçük Sunda Adaları155.140142.579+8,81%ParepareGüney SulawesiSulawesi151.454129.262+17,17%BlitarDoğu CavaCava149.149131.968+13,02%Pagar AlamGüney SumatraSumatra143.844126.181+14,00%PayakumbuhBatı SumatraSumatra139.576116.825+19,47%GunungsitoliKuzey SumatraSumatra136.017126.202+7,78%MojokertoDoğu CavaCava132.434120.196+10,18%KotamobaguKuzey SulawesiSulawesi123.722107.459+15,13%MagelangOrta CavaCava121.526118.227+2,79%BukittinggiBatı SumatraSumatra121.028111.312+8,73%TidoreKuzey MalukuMaluku Adaları114.48090.055+27,12%TomohonKuzey SulawesiSulawesi100.58791.553+9,87%Sungai PenuhJambiSumatra96.61082.293+17,40%PariamanBatı SumatraSumatra94.22479.043+19,21%SubulussalamAcehSumatra90.75167.446+34,55%SibolgaKuzey SumatraSumatra89.58484.481+6,04%TualMalukuMaluku Adaları88.28058.082+51,99%SolokBatı SumatraSumatra73.43859.396+23,64%SawahluntoBatı SumatraSumatra65.13856.866+14,55%Padang PanjangBatı SumatraSumatra56.31147.008+19,79%SabangAçeSumatra41.19730.653+34,40%

Indonesia is divided into provinces (IndonesianProvinsi). Provinces are made up of regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies, and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.

Since the enactment of Law Number 22 of 1999 on Local Government[1] (the law was revised by Law Number 32 of 2004 and Law Number 23 of 2014),[2] local governments now play a greater role in administering their areas. Foreign policydefence (including armed forces and national police), system of law, and monetary policy, however, remain the domain of the national government. Since 2005 as the enactment of Law Number 32 of 2004, heads of local government (governors, regents and mayors) have been directly elected by popular election.[3]

Main article: Provinces of Indonesia

First level subdivisions of Indonesia is Province. A province is headed by a governor (Gubernur). Each province has its own regional assembly, called Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPRD, literally “Regional People’s Representative Council”). Governors and representative members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Provinces was formerly also known as Daerah Tingkat I (Level I Region).

Indonesia is divided into 38 provinces.[4] Eleven provinces have been created since 2000. Nine provinces have special status:

  • Aceh: Aceh has greater role in local government, which includes its own Islamic Sharia law (for Muslim citizens), flag and provincial anthem, local political parties are allowed, and decisions or laws made by the central government which directly affect Aceh’s administration must be referred to the local government or legislative body.[5]
  • Central Papua: The Province had split from Papua in 2022.
  • Highland Papua: The Province had split from Papua in 2022. This province is the only landlocked province in Indonesia.
  • Yogyakarta Special Region: The Sultan of Yogyakarta is de facto and de jure governor of Yogyakarta since he is given priority when electing the governor. For centuries, the Sultanate of Yogyakarta has reigned in the region.[6] However, in the 2000s the central government proposed a law that required the governor to be popularly elected as in the other provinces, while still giving the sultan significant political power. Since 31 August 2012, the Law Number 13 of 2012 on Specialty of Yogyakarta Special Region has been approved by the central government and according to the act, Yogyakarta refuses to be a province but a region at province-level.[7][8][9] Within the Special Region of Yogyakarta is also the Principality of Pakualaman. The Prince of Pakualaman is also a hereditary position, and serve as the Vice-Governor of Yogyakarta.[10]
  • Papua: Since 2001 local government has a greater role. The governor is required to be of Papuan origins.[11]
  • South Papua: The Province had split from Papua in 2022.
  • Southwest Papua: The Province had split from West Papua in 2022.
  • West Papua: The province had split from Papua in 2003. A 2008 regulation by the national government confirms that special autonomy status in Papua also applies to West Papua.[12]
  • Jakarta Special Capital Region: Jakarta is the capital of Indonesia. The Governor of Jakarta has the power to appoint and dismiss mayors and regent within the region. The local government is allowed to co-operate with other cities from other countries.[13]

Provinces of Indonesia

Main article: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

Second level subdivisions of Indonesia is Regency (kabupaten) and city (kota).This subdivisions is a local level of government beneath the provincial level. However, they enjoy greater decentralisation of affairs than the provincial body, such as provision of public schools and public health facilities. As at 2019, there were 514 regencies and cities in Indonesia. They was formerly known collectively as Daerah Tingkat II (Level II Region).[14]

Both regency and city are at the same level, having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in differing demographics, size and economics.

Generally the regency has a larger area than the city, and the city has non-agricultural economic activities. A regency is headed by a regent (bupati), and a city is headed by a mayor (wali kota). The regent or mayor and the representative council members are elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years.

Main article: Districts of Indonesia

Regencies and cities are divided into districts, which have several variations of terms:

  • Kecamatan headed by a camat. A camat is a civil servant, responsible to the regent (in a regency) or to the mayor (in a city). Kecamatan are found in most parts of Indonesia.[15]
  • Distrik headed by a kepala distrik, are used in provinces within Western New Guinea.[11]
  • In the Special Region of YogyakartaKapanewon (for subdivisions of regencies), headed by a panewu, and Kemantren (for subdivisions of Yogyakarta City), headed by a mantri pamong praja, are used.[16][17]

Main article: Villages of Indonesia

Districts are divided into desa (villages) or kelurahan (urban communities). Both desa and kelurahan are of a similar division level, but a desa enjoys more power in local matters than a kelurahan. An exception is Aceh, where districts are divided into mukim before being subdivided further into gampong.

In Indonesian, as in English, a village (desa) has rural connotations. In the context of administrative divisions, a desa can be defined as a body which has authority over the local people in accordance with acknowledged local traditions of the area. A desa is headed by a “head of village” (Indonesiankepala desa), who is elected by popular vote.

Most Indonesian villages use the term “desa”, but other terms are used in some regions:

Notes

  • ^[a] In other places, “dusun” is an administrative division form below “desa”.
  • ^[b] In other places, “kampung” is equal with “dusun”, except in Bungo, Jambi.

Kelurahan[edit]

Although desa and kelurahan are part of a district, a kelurahan has less autonomy than a desa. A kelurahan is headed by a lurah. Lurahs are civil servants, directly responsible to their camats.

The following table lists the number of current provinces, regencies, and cities in Indonesia.

LevelType (Indonesian)Type (English)Head of government (Indonesian)Head of government (English)Number
IProvinsiProvinceGubernurGovernor38[18]
IIKabupatenRegencyBupatiRegent416[18]
KotaCityWali KotaMayor98[18]
IIIKecamatandistrikkapanewon, or kemantrenDistrictCamatkepala distrikpanewu or mantri pamong prajaHead of district7,024[19]
IVDesa or kelurahanVillage/subdistrictKepala desa or lurahHead of village/subdistrict83,441[20]
  1. ^ “DTE 46 / August 2000: What is regional autonomy?”. Dte.gn.apc.org. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  2. ^ “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 23 Tahun 2014 tentang Pemerintah Daerah”. Law No. 23 of 2014 (in Indonesian). People’s Representative Council.
  3. ^ “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Pemerintah Daerah”. Law No. 32 of 2004 (in Indonesian). People’s Representative Council.
  4. ^ “INDONESIA MAP – 33 Maps of Indonesia Provinces – PETA INDONESIA”. Indonesia-tourism.com. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  5. ^ “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 11 Tahun 2006 tentang Pemerintah Daerah”. Article 8, Law No. 11 of 2006 (in Indonesian). People’s Representative Council.
  6. ^ indahnesia.com. “Provinces of Indonesia – Yogyakarta – Motto: Tut Wuri Handayani – Discover Indonesia Online”. indahnesia.com. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  7. ^ “Yogyakarta Debate Moves From Street to House”. The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  8. ^ “Wisdom Is Key in Yogyakarta’s Status Controversy, Taufiq Kiemas”. The Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  9. ^ “Minister sticks to direct election for Yogyakarta governor”. Antara News. 14 December 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  10. ^ “Undang-undang Nomor 13 Tahun 2012 tentang Keistimewaan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta”. Law No. 13 of 2012 (in Indonesian). People’s Representative Council.
  11. Jump up to:a b “Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 2001 tentang Otonomi Khusus Bagi Provinsi Papua”. Law No. 21 of 2001 (in Indonesian). People’s Representative Council.
  12. ^ “Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 1 Tahun 2008 tentang Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 21 Tahun 2001 Tentang Otonomi Khusus Bagi Provinsi Papua”. Government Regulation in Lieu of Law No. 1 of 2008 (in Indonesian). Government of Indonesia.
  13. ^ “CIA – The World Factbook”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
  14. ^ “Indonesia Regencies”www.statoids.com.
  15. ^ “Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 17 tahun 2018 tentang Kecamatan”. Government Regulation No. 17 of 2018 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Government of Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 April 2019.
  16. ^ “Perubahan Nomenklatur Kelembagaan Kabupaten/Kota di DIY” (in Indonesian). Pemerintah Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (Regional Government of the Special Region of Yogyakarta). 2 December 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  17. Jump up to:a b Muryanto, Bambang (3 December 2019). “Yogyakarta to restore archaic administrative naming convention”The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  18. Jump up to:a b c “Rekapitulasi Jumlah PPID Provinsi, Kabupaten, dan Kota” (PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Home Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia. 4 April 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  19. ^ “Jumlah Kecamatan Menurut Provinsi, 2004–2014” (in Indonesian). Central Agency on Statistics of Indonesia. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  20. ^ “Peraturan Menteri Dalam Negeri Nomor 72 Tahun 2019 tentang Perubahan atas Permendagri nomor 137 Tahun 2017 tentang Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan”. No. 72 of 2019 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Minister of Home Affairs.
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